General surgery is a specialty, which focuses on different abdominal contents like the bile ducts, the appendix, the gallbladder, the pancreas, liver, colon, small bowel, stomach, and esophagus. Most times, it involves the thyroid gland, but this mainly depends on the referral patterns. General surgery also deals with different diseases that affect hernias, peripheral vascular surgery, trauma, soft tissue, breast, as well as skin. Procedures like colonoscopy and gastroscopy are also included here.
In many locations, the responsibility for trauma care usually falls under general surgery. There are surgeons who obtain more training to offer critical care. The general surgeons should be in a position to handle all sorts of surgical emergencies. They are often called so as to handle patients who are injured critically or those that are very ill. They are required to perform different procedures so as to stabilize the patients. They should be able to do thoracotomy, emergency laparotomy, compartment fasciotomies, cricothyroidotomy, and thoracostomy so as to staunch any bleeding. These are the people you will find in trauma or surgical intensive care units.
This area also covers emergency surgery like organ perforations, bowel obstructions, infections, and bleeding. Gallbladder removal is one of the surgical procedures that are very common all over the world. It has to be done electively. However, the gallbladder is at risk of being inflamed acutely and may require one to get an emergency operation. Other common emergencies include small bowel obstructions, rupture of the appendix, and infections in the appendix.
This is a specialty that is new. It mainly deals with techniques for access where cameras, as well as small instruments, are inserted through small incisions. A lot is evolving from the concept such as robotic surgery. Colons, appendices, and gallbladders can actually be removed by application of the technique. Hernias can be repaired using the method. It is possible to perform bariatric surgery in this way and there are many benefits that are associated with this. They include the reduction of complications of surgical wounds, especially in the obese patients. It is important that the general surgeons be well trained in the area and proficient too.
General surgery also deals with lots of minor and major rectal and colon diseases. This includes the inflammatory bowel diseases like Cohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Others are hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal bleeding, treat cancer, colon cancer, and diverticulitis.
General surgery also handles lots of breast surgery that is non-cosmetic. This includes mastectomy all the way to lumpectomy. This usually pertains to the diagnosis, the evaluation and the treatment of cancer.
Vascular surgery is also a specialty of general surgery. However, for this one needs to have special training in the area. This area is usually handled by specialists. Most of the times, the general surgeons can actually handle the minor disorders.
There are many other areas covered by general surgery. These areas include endocrine surgery, transplant surgery, surgical oncologists, cardiothoracic surgery, pediatric surgery, and so on. Minimally invasive surgery has become prevalent in the present day. Robotic surgery has come with a lot of enthusiasm even though it is very costly.